Chapter 7 Chemistry PDF Print E-mail

 

Chapter 7

Chemical attributes can be determined by the arrangement of the protons and neutrons within the atomic nucleus (see appendix on atomic nucleus arrangement), as these will determine the number of magnetic bonds available and the shape of the thermo field. This shape will affect the atom’s ability to be a solid, liquid or gas at any given temperature.

Chemical bonding is the balancing of the thermo-field energy, magnetic bands, and the electron speed of an atom. If the thermo-field energy (size) grows too great, then the magnetic bonds will break or be too weak to maintain a stable combination. When the magnetic energy between atoms is too much for the secondary magnetic field to balance, the atoms will move apart and can be easily disrupted by other magnetic fields. When the electron speed is out of balance with that of the neighboring atoms of a compound, the electrons will give up the excess speed as heat to the thermo-fields or as magnetic energy to the atoms’ magnetic fields, both of which will move the atoms apart, making the magnetic bonds created by the protons of the atoms much easier to disrupt.

Again, all chemical compounds are pulled together by magnetic links between protons. The easiest link to form and maintain is that between two protons of equal strength, as in hydrogen-to-hydrogen, which shares a single band. The pair bond of oxygen-to-oxygen shares two magnetic bands, two protons from within each atom linked together. Most magnetic bands try to maintain these bonds on a single plane, but with the existence of the thermo-field and the availability of magnetic energy, the atoms will move their position to balance the different energy levels.

Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms in a molecule, so that each acquires a stable outer shell. This is the old definition for a stable molecule. With the knowledge that electrons and protons are magnets (having both a north and south pole) and that the bonding force between atoms is magnetic links between protons, it’s clear that the electrons have a different propose: stabilizing the magnetic energy to balance the magnetic strength of the atom’s secondary magnetic field within the compound.

Static bonds are links between the electrons of the atoms of different thermo-fields. The electrons of different atoms are temporarily linked magnetically in a looping orbit, which balances the speed and angular rotation so as to exert a pull on each other. Electron interaction does play a role in the loose associations with other atoms; through their magnetic fields. Electrons will always favor other atoms that have the same electron speed (energy), as well as the ability to share electrons from their outermost thermo-fields.

Ionic bonds, like in sodium chloride, have used the terms anion and cation to describe giving up or adding an electron to balance the outer electron shell. But because all compounds are the result of magnetic bands emanating from protons that link together, the meaning of anion and cation must be redefined to describe the different voltage levels of the atoms involved, into a fashion that favors the alignment of thermo-fields that balance their magnetic energy. The difference in electron speed is what creates strong chemical reactions, as well as the ability of the atomic nucleus to absorb and embrace the excess magnetic energy within the nucleus’ secondary magnetic field.

A chemical lattice is how compound arranges itself into crystals along thermo-field size and shape. Attraction between electrons also favors crystal arrangement between atoms or compounds that have the same electron energy level. They fit best within the lowest energy state. The different shapes of the thermo-fields can bend the magnetic links between atoms, so that the atoms are no longer on a single plane.  For example, SiO4 has one oxygen at each corner of the silicon atom, but because of the size of the oxygen’s thermo-field, the atoms are too large to exist on a single plane. This causes two oxygen atoms to be above and two to be below the plane of the silicon atom.

NaCl has two atoms with a large difference in electron energy. However, as a compound, the two elements have average electron energy, which reduces the available magnetic energy and creates a strong magnetic bond between the atoms.

What is a Catalyst?

Catalysts work by disrupting the electron speed, which disrupts the spacing of the atoms and weaken or destroys the magnetic links within a substance without recombining with the atoms themselves. To have a working catalyst, a material must have two attributes and the correct environment. The first attribute is a magnetic band that extends well outside the thermo-field to reach the other material, and the second attribute is that this same magnetic band must be flexible enough to absorb or give up any energy needed to create the new compound. The materials must be brought together with the correct amounts of energy to make the chemical recombination possible.

Explosion vs. combustion

An explosion is the rapid disruption of magnetic bonds, releasing the energy of the electrons orbiting the thermo-field to create heat and pressure before new compounds can be formed.

Combustion is the absorption of heat energy until the magnetic bonds of the compound are strained and break to create new compounds. The release of extra energy continues until the energy is used up or the thermo-fields expand and radiate the excess energy away.

Oxidation is essentially combustion, but slower. For example, the metallic element iron has a magnetic field that is larger than it’s thermo-field and will disrupt the magnetic energy of the compound O2. Because the secondary magnetic field of O2 can accept the added magnetic energy of the iron atoms, they will combine to form a new compound.

 

What is the Relationship of Heat and Chemistry?

The processes for making compounds recombine are endothermic (adding heat) and exothermic (releasing heat). In this example, the two compound nitrogen dioxide and oxygen with the addition or subtraction of heat induces a chemical change (NO2 + NO2 plus heat becomes 2NO + O2). As you heat nitrogen dioxide, the atoms move apart, weakening the magnetic bonds, and at a given temperature, the bonds become easily disrupted by other atoms in close proximity. The compounds recombine to form O2 and the unbalanced 2NO compound that maintains a surplus of magnetic energy, which can hold the atom together at these higher temperatures. If you remove heat, the atoms move closer together and the magnetic field will extend out beyond the edge of the nitrogen monoxide’s thermo-field. When the compounds interact with other atoms, they will re-form into a more balanced magnetic field, so that the two compounds (2NO and O2) have different electron speeds and different levels of magnetic energy available to them at the lower temperatures.

All atoms and compounds of different types have different electron speeds and different magnetic energy levels, causing an imbalance between the atoms. When this imbalance is high enough, the energy will cause them to recombine back into NO2. The difference in electron speed is the catalyst required to rearrange the atom. As the electrons try to match speed with their neighbors, this energy will be transferred to the neighboring atoms for time to time and disrupt the magnetic field. This causes the magnetic links to vary from just under the thermo-field to just out side the thermo-field, where they can then attach to the magnetic bands of another atom. Also note that the nitrogen atom has only one free primary magnetic band, while oxygen has two. In the compound NO, the oxygen atom has a free magnetic band and an excess amount of magnetic energy. At high temperatures, this band never has a chance to combine with other atoms, but at lower temperatures, the available magnetic energy of NO is enough to disrupt the O2 compound to form 2NO2.

Electrolysis is the addition of energy in the form of electron flow between two substances that induces an electro-magnetic chemical breakdown. The addition of electrical energy to a substance forces magnetic energy into the nucleus of the atoms, which breaks the magnetic links so that new compound can form. This electrical energy compresses the secondary magnetic band of the individual atoms, which increases the size of the magnetic link between the atoms.

What Makes Elements Chemically Resistant to Combining?

In the example of gold’s atomic arrangement, the primary magnetic band is so large and the secondary magnetic line so stable, that there is little chance to form chemical bonds. Gold compounds are unlikely to form because the other atoms must be able to absorb the extra magnetic field strength into their secondary magnetic field to form a compound.

The number of protons balanced by the available magnetic energy required to cross the thermo-field, while still holding the nucleus together, limits the number of possible magnetic links for an atom.

Hydrogen’s single proton can only have one magnetic band that can link to other atoms.

Helium has two protons that are linked to each other, leaving no other chemical bonds possible except at extremely low temperatures. When the thermo-field is the same size or is smaller than the secondary magnetic field, helium’s primary magnetic band can link with other helium atoms to form a chain.

Lithium has one very strong and two weak primary magnetic bands, and due to the thermo-field shape of lithium, there is a very large variation in the size of the secondary magnetic field, which makes this atom very reactive.

Beryllium has two strong and two weak primary magnetic bands. The compound Na2BeF4 forms two loops, with beryllium in the middle and fluorine sodium fluorine forming a loop on either side, so that 2F – Na – Be – Na-2F is the chain.

The magnetic links of these other atoms will be covered at a later date:

Boron. Carbon. Nitrogen. Oxygen. Fluorine Neon. Sodium. Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorous Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tim Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold  Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium 104-Unnilquadium, 105-Hahnium 

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 31 March 2009 19:15
 

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