Electrons and Devices PDF Print E-mail

 

Chapter 6

Electronic devices are based on the complex interaction between the magnetic fields of electrons, photons, and thermo-fields emanating from the atom’s nucleus.

Electrical resistance of a substance is inversely proportional to the electrons’ ability to find an atom that has the correct magnetic orientation, without the interference of ionization from the thermo-fields, as well as each of the atoms’ ability to add the extra magnetic energy of passing electrons to the atoms’ free primary magnetic band.

What is Electrical Current?

Electric current is simply the flow of electrons from place to place. What creates current flow is a more complex question. Electron current flow in lightning or a spark is only a matter of scale.  Electrons are always in motion, whether the electrons are orbiting on the atoms’ thermo-fields or traveling between atoms’ thermo-fields. When an imbalance is created between the number of electrons and protons within any substance, like the atmosphere or a capacitor, there is the potential to induce a current flow from the negatively charged area to the positively charged area. As a substance becomes ionized, the amount of magnetic energy needs to be increased. This ionization is in proportion to the amount of imbalance between the electrons and protons. This built up stored energy is used by the substance to expel electrons from the negatively charged area and to attract electrons to the positively charged area.

What is Lightning?

Some people say lightning comes from the ground and goes to the sky, while other say its travels from the sky to the ground. The correct answer is that it moves from the negatively charged area to the positively charged area. If the ground is the negatively charged area, then lightning starts from the ground and moves to the sky, and if the sky is negatively charged, then lightning travels from the sky to the ground.

  Why Does Lightning Look Like Lightning?

 This can be better visualized as demonstrated in two dimensions.  Electrons take the course of the most help. I visualized it by watching rain hit the windshield of my car. As I watched the water bead up on the glass, the water drops began to move down in a haphazard path, changing direction as the drops were pulled to the right or left by the surface tension of other drops. This continued until a drop of water was so large that it overcame the resistance of the glass and was able to race down the windshield. So if you remove gravity and add a third dimension, you will see that lightning acts in the same haphazard way as water. Lightning moves from a general area of imbalance to another area of opposite imbalance, with random assistance from smaller areas of magnetic imbalance between the two areas. Lightning (electrons) must take the path that has the most help to conserve energy.

 

What Stops a Copper Wire From Ionizing?

When electrons cross a material, the magnetic energy creates an imbalance between the numbers of electrons to protons. The material will ionize if the electrons are captured and held by the thermo-fields. Copper, silver, and gold all share two characteristics that make them good conductors of electrons. The first is that their outermost thermo-fields cover a very large area, making it easy for an electron to escape, thus limiting ionization. The second reason is that the nucleus will give all the excess magnetic energy to the single stable magnetic band that then extends well beyond its own thermo-field without interfering with passing electrons.

Why is the Magnetic Field Around a Wire Round?

The magnetic field that surrounds a wire is not circular in cross section, but only appears round, due to the overlapping of the different bands of magnetism. Current flow adds magnetic energy to the atoms of an electrical wire, as each atom creates elliptically-shaped magnetic bands that then appear as a circle because so many of them overlap. Each atom creates one magnetic band that extends out and to the right, and then curves half way around the wire and returns to the same atom. When you combine the fields from the trillions upon trillions of atoms in a wire, all of these bands overlap making the appearance of a round field.

   

Do Electrons Have Other Attributes?

I would maintain that each electron has a thermo-field, but this field would have a non-variable strength. This field maintains the electron’s orbit by combining with the proton’s thermo-field. The magnetic strength of the electron is variable and is control by the torque or spin. This accounts for the ability of the electron to change direction without losing speed. Electrons negate the effects of other phased particles by not interacting with them.

Do Electrons Repel Each Other?

Electrons will change direction without losing speed. When one electron encounters another electron, they seem to repel, due to the way an electron’s magnetic energy is balanced by the internal spin or rotational torque. When the magnetic fields of two electrons interact, the electrons appear to repel, but their magnetic fields try to align their poles, disrupting the internal spin. The spin acts like a gyro and causes a directional change as the poles align, which then changes the direction of both electrons away from each other.

When you electrify two parallel wires, it is the protons’ magnetic bands that are repelling the other wire, not the electrons themselves. The electrons distort the primary magnetic bands of the atoms, angling them so that they can attract or repel other electrons. If both magnetic bands are of the same type, then the fields will not cross or combine, thereby repelling the other magnetic field.

 

Can You Get Friction if there is No Thermo-Field Interaction?

Yes. Magnetic friction is the movement of one atom by other atom without the collision of the atoms’ thermo-fields, but the atoms must be close enough for their magnet fields to interact, which then affects the orbital speed of the electrons of both atoms. The atoms’ magnetic fields will grab and accelerate electrons, thereby slowing the passing atom. The accelerated electrons now have excess energy and will induce a current flow, if possible, or the electrons will release their energy to the thermo-fields as heat. The greater the magnetic interaction, the greater the energy transfer. If you isolate the magnetic fields or have magnetic fields that are counter balanced by an equal number of opposing magnetic fields, then the affect of friction will be reduced. Graphite is an example of opposing magnetic fields, where the atoms of graphite are arranged with the number of north poles up matched by the number of south poles up within a single plane. This creates a balance of electron magnetic reaction to the passing magnetic field, limiting friction.

 

How Does a Diode Work?

Diodes are divided into two parts: the anode is the positively charged part that has a low electron voltage, and the cathode is the negatively changes part that has a high electron voltage. Anodes are positively doped, and cathodes are negatively doped. The doping creates a voltage difference (electron speed) within the atoms that make up the material of each side, which means that the negative cathode has had chemicals added that raise the electron voltage of the material higher than that of the anode. The voltage difference caused by doping changes the internal speed of the electrons of the neighboring atoms within the material. Diode structure is a relationship between the negative and positive side that controls the electron flow.

Note that electrons are the negatively charged particles, and it’s the electrons that travel as current. However, remember that standard drawings show current flow from positive to negative, which is backwards to reality.

Visualize a diode as a cross section of a sin wave. In one direction, the electrons come to a rise and charge over the higher voltage material, then fall into the trough of the lower voltage material. As the trough fills, the electrons are pushed down the circuit by the build up of ionization within the trough. But in the other direction, the electrons come to a trough (lower voltage material) first and try the raise the voltage of all the atoms within the trough. As more electrons enter the trough, the pooled electrons create ionization of the material. This build up of ionization blocks any more electrons from entering the material, which brings an end to the current flow, except for stray electrons that leak out over the higher voltage material. Since there is no place for the extra magnetic energy of ionization to go, a repulsive magnetic field is created, limiting current flow. The diode works by limiting ionization in one direction for current flow and stopping current flow in the other direction by creating ionization.

How Does a Transistor Work?

A transistor is just a more complicated diode. It works in the same way, which is to say that a transistor uses ionization of the center material to control the electron flow across the whole device. By applying a current to the center portion of the transistor, we change the steady state of the atoms’ voltage in the material to match that of the end portions of the transistor, allowing the electrons to flow across the transistor. The diode effect within a transistor is in both directions, and the transistor uses the channel to control the current flow by limiting the ionization of the center.

How Does a Capacitor Work?

Within a capacitor there are two magnetic fields.  The energy and direction of the magnetic fields are aligned between parallel plates. The energy is stored by the creation of electrons building up on the negatively charged plate, balanced by the field on the positively charged plate. The ionization of the plates creates a strong repulsive magnetic field that links to the positive (attractive) field’s plate. This will continue until the magnetic bands have enough strength to force an electron across the gap between the two plates, or for as long as this force is stored within the magnetic bands.

Another type of capacitors moves electrons from one region or end of a circuit to the other so as to ionize both regions. With the establishment of a strong magnetic field that attracts electrons to one location and a strong magnetic field that will repel electrons at the other location, potential energy is stored, and when an electron path is found, the magnetic energy will seek a balance. The magnetic field will store enough energy (voltage) to make the electrons jump the gap between the two areas. To make a capacitor, you must balance the ionization of the two areas; these areas are not required to be close to each other, but space and magnetic stability will require the use of two parallel plates, which help by stabilizing the magnetic fields and by blocking the outside interference of other magnetic fields.

What is an Induction Coil?

When electrons flow through a coil of wire, the passing electrons create a magnetic field. Some of their energy is given up to the atoms’ magnetic bands, which grow in strength and size. This energy is then stored within the protons’ magnetic fields. These magnetic fields expand to match the strength of the current flow. When the current flow stops, the protons’ magnetic fields collapse, and this excess magnetic energy is passed back to the atoms’ electrons as speed. With this additional speed, the electrons of the wire may have enough speed to escape their thermo-fields and maintain the (voltage) current flow. A long as there is energy in the collapsing magnetic fields, current flow will continue. 

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 31 March 2009 19:17
 

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