Properties of Matter PDF Print E-mail

 

Chapter 5

The different states of matter are a function the relationship between the electrons and their orbital placement as constrained by the thermo-field. The electrons orbit about the thermo-field of the atomic nucleus in three main modes – gas, liquid and solid. Gases occur when the electrons’ orbital position is on the outside of their individual thermo-field, which is generated by a particular proton in a defined location and shape; this pattern is determined by the position of the proton within the atom’s nucleus. For hydrogen gas, the electron’s orbit is on the outside of the doughnut-shaped nearly spherical thermo-field (as there is a single proton’s thermo-field the shape is easily defined). It can be stated that for all gases, the electrons ride on the outside of the thermo-field. In a liquid, the electrons’ orbits are integrated into the thermo-field, which gives the electron the ability to help the atom resist the compression of the thermo-field. In a solid, the electrons ride on the inner edge of the thermo-field.

There are other extreme states of matter, including two types of plasma. One is gas plasma, where there is too much magnetic energy so that the atoms are ionized, as in neon lights. Then there is the liquid/solid plasma that requires extremely high pressure to compress the thermo-fields to match the magnetic energy of the atoms. The heat energy of the atoms’ thermo-fields has to be matched by enough pressure to interlock the thermo-fields, so that the plasma will act as a solid and a liquid, a state of being hard but also maintaining the ability to flow. All this heat and pressure must be matched with excessive amounts of magnetic energy to disassociate the electron from the thermo-field to be called plasma.

What Are the Different Properties of Matter?

There are three major states of matter and multiple sub-states that exist in extreme conditions. The other properties are a function of the relationship between the magnetic field of the atoms, the shape and size of the thermo-fields, and the interaction of electrons with both. The following are definitions for various states of matter: (Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, high pressure plasma, thermo-magnetic interface, super-liquid, super-gas).

The States of Matter

Gas - Electrons ride on the outer edge of the thermo-field.

Liquid - Electron ride in the middle of the thermo-field.

Solid - Electron ride on the inner edge of the thermo-field.

Plasma – Electrons are disassociated from their thermo-fields.

Super cooled – When the thermo-field is smaller than the secondary magnetic field of an atom and the electrons change orbital position.

 

What are Some Other Characteristics of Elements?

The orbits of the electrons control the state of matter, but the properties of elements are also controlled by the size, strength and reactivity of the magnetic field in relationship to the thermo-field, creating the following categories: metals, non-metals, transient-metals, and noble gases.

Metals occur when the primary magnetic band generated by the proton(s) within the atomic nucleus is larger than the atom’s thermo-field.

Non-metals occur when the free primary magnetic band of the atom is generally smaller than the thermo-field.

Transient-Metals are atoms where the magnetic field varies in size, but is generally the same size as the thermo-field.

Noble gases occur when the atom is in balance with no free magnetic primary band under normal conditions; consequently, there is no way for another atom to magnetically attach to the protons of the noble gas.

What Causes Different Crystal Shapes to Form?

Crystal shape is in response to the arrangement of the thermo-fields of the atoms. In most cases, the correct temperature and pressure is required to form the proper alignment of the geometric shapes of the atoms’ thermo-fields.

 

Why Do Crystals Grow?

The electrons that orbit the atom or compound will favor other electrons with the same speed and will fend off other atoms of different electron voltages. Crystal growth also depends on how the atoms fit into the holes that are available, because temperature and pressure affects the size and shape of the thermo-fields. The available room for atoms to fit into limits the compounds that can form crystals, and the electron voltage affects how atoms can arrange, as well as the way the magnetic links are able to form with neighboring atoms.

The crystal shape of diamonds is formed from the alignment of the carbon atom’s four primary magnetic links with four other carbons. Carbon’s available magnetic energy within the atomic nucleus is divided into four primary bands; each of these four primary magnetic bands link with a different carbon atom, and that atom tries to form links with four other carbon atoms, and so on. This makes the diamond one large atomic compound that transmits any additional energy to all the atoms within the crystal equally, making magnetic disruption of the atoms very difficult. What makes diamonds the hardest substance is that all the carbon atoms are aligned up and down along the axes of their poles, with the thermo-fields interlocked equally.

What Makes Electrons Move from Atom to Atom?

The atom’s ability to surrender or acquire an electron is in direct proportion to that element’s electrons’ speed, balanced by the shape of the thermo-field and the electrons’ orbital position relative to the thermo-field. In solids, liquids and gases, the placement of the electrons defines the state of matter. Hence, having their electrons orbiting on the outside of the thermo-field, gases are able to exchange electrons far more readily than a solid. But a solid’s ability to carry an electrical current is related to the solid’s capacity to resist ionization, as well as the ability of the material to add the excess magnetic energy of passing electrons to a primary magnetic band. The primary magnetic band must then be able to extend beyond the thermo-field without disrupting current flow.

What are the Shapes of a Thermo-Field?

The atom’s thermo-field shape is defined by the stacking of the rings of protons within the nucleus. The rings of protons radiate their thermo-fields like layers of an onion, with alternating layers divided into pods. Oxygen is a good example, starting with the three different levels of orbital electron energy, 2 – 4 – 2.  The outer layer is divided into hemispheres radiating from the nucleus, with the orbits of the middle four electrons looking like pods, one in each quadrant. The thermo-fields of the two electrons in the innermost orbits again form two hemispherical shapes.

What is Heat?

Heat has been called the vibration of atoms. But thermal (heat) energy is more than a type of energy. Heat is the amount of field energy that the proton radiates.  The atom’s protons create a thermo-field of a given size to match the temperature (amount of energy) and counter the physical pressure of other atoms.

What is Latent Heat?

Latent heat is the amount of energy required to move an electron from one orbital position to another within the thermo-field. If an electron is orbiting on the inner edge of the thermo-field, as in a solid, latent heat is the amount of heat that is required to raise the level of vibration of the thermo-field enough to cause the electron(s) that are riding on the inner edge of the thermo-field to be integrated into the middle of the thermo-field to form a liquid.

What is Friction?

There are two types of friction, thermo-field interaction, and electro-magnetic interaction. The thermo-field interaction occurs when two thermo-fields come together, like two balls hitting each other. The impact compression distorts the energy balance of thermo-fields, and for a short time the energy of compression is stored. The amount of heat energy generated by this interaction will be related to the amount of energy from the collision that was transferred to the nucleus of the atom, divided by the time interval that the two thermo-field were compressed, and subtracting the spring energy that was stored in the distortion of the thermo-fields.

What Happens as You Super Cool an Atom?

As atoms are cooled, there is a point (or points for large atoms) when the atoms stop constricting in a linear manner. When the temperature of the atoms is cooled to the point that the electrons on the inside of the thermo-field begin to interfere with the secondary magnetic field, the contraction rate of the thermo-field changes. Let’s call this the electron-thermal resistance point, (the point where the electron is forced under the secondary magnetic field of the atom). This makes it possible for the secondary magnetic field to be larger than the atom’s thermo-field.

What is Surface Tension?

Surface tension is the electromagnetic bonds created by the electrons orbiting on different atoms’ thermo-fields; these orbital bonds are weak and are easily disrupted by any random magnetic interference or physical movement by the atoms.

What is Conductivity?

Electrical conductivity of metals occurs in response to a metal’s ability to add the extra magnetic energy of passing electrons to the metal’s primary magnetic band, expanding this band to match the direction and orientation of current flow with very little ionization added to the thermo-field of the metal. To limit ionization, the metal’s outer thermo-field must be weak, while the one just underneath needs to be strong, as is the case for gold, silver, and copper. 

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 31 March 2009 19:18
 

Add your comment

Your name:
Your email:
Subject:
Comment: