Thermo-Field – Heat Energy PDF Print E-mail

 

Chapter 3

Protons are an assembly of many types of energy: gravitational, magnetic, and heat energy. The heat energy of the protons is more than just the vibration of the atomic nucleus. It is a field of energy, made up of vibrating lines that expand and contract with the addition or subtraction of heat energy. The lines radiate from the protons within the nucleus of the atoms and are parallel to the magnetic bands also created by the protons. The shape and size of the thermo-field is unique to each element; isotopes have little influence on the size or shape of any given element’s thermo-field. The number and placement of the protons within the rings of energy that control the structure of the atom’s nucleus determines the attributes of each thermo-field. In the case of hydrogen and helium, the shape of the thermo-field is nearly spherical. Helium is symmetrical, as the two protons each radiate loops from the nucleus to form two halves of a torus. However, as the number of protons increase, the thermo-field also grows more complex. The shape of the atoms’ thermo-fields can be tall and skinny like iron, or can be round and symmetrical as in the case of noble gases. Some are short and fat, like most of the heavier atoms. Each thermo-field’s shape, size and symmetry are what determine the chemical characteristics for different elements. The shape of the thermo-field influences where the electrons reside within the thermo-field, and this determines the states of matter (gas, liquid or solid) and the temperatures at which they change.

There are three types of heat transfer from the thermo-field: direct contact between two thermo-fields of different energy levels, emissions through the use of photons to absorb or emit energy, and magnetic interaction of electrons between atoms. This magnetic interaction is reverse energy flow, and is the reason metals feel cold. The current types of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. But convection is really describing the movement within heated material, not an energy transfer. As in a hot air balloon, the balloon rises but the heat in the balloon is still either conducted or radiated away to a new location.

Friction is more complex; as there can be a combination of all three types of energy transfer as atoms move past each other. Basically, friction is the conversion of movement to heat. Mechanically compressing the thermo-field is a type of movement that is converted to heat. For example, as the surface of one material breaks pieces of the other material off, this causes two types of thermo-field disruption: the movement of the broken-off atoms that have intermixed thermo-fields and the distortion by compression of the thermo-fields before breaking.

Two effects change temperature. The first is the physical compression or decompression of the thermo-field, which causes a change in temperature as in confined gas. The size of the confined space alters the temperature and also changes the frequency of absorption and radiation of photonic energy, but does not change the amount of energy within the thermo-fields.

The second effect happens when the magnetic interaction between two substances seeks to balance magnetic energy (speed) between the electrons of their atoms. The electrons create magnetic links between the atoms, and then the electrons try to balance the energy of their thermo-fields. For example, when you add acid to water, the temperature of both goes up but there is no change in the two compounds. In the case of wind chill, as the atoms move past each other, the atoms’ electrons that ride on the different thermo-fields create short-term magnetic link, but as the magnetic links break, the thermo-fields distort, slowing the electrons’ orbital speed.

Note that the ability of a gas to change its size and temperature is faster because the electrons orbit on the outside of the thermo-field. The vacuum effect created by the movement of the gas gives the thermo-field space to expand into. This energy will be replaced by the thermo-field lowering the heat energy of the atoms, as the electrons return to an equilibrium speed. If the speed of the passing electron is greater, after the magnetic bonds created by the electrons are broken, the electron adds this excess energy to its thermo-field.

How Does the Thermo-Field’s Resistance to Compression Differ as Relates to States of Matter?

As a gas, the electron’s orbit rides on the outside of the thermo-field and responds easily to changes in pressure and temperature, as well as allowing for the transfer or movement of electrons from atom to atom. All thermo-fields will interlock, causing a resistance to movement, but because the electrons orbiting the atoms are on the outside of their thermo-fields, they continually force the atoms apart.

In a liquid, the electrons are integrated into the thermo-field and hold the field to a limited range of sizes. This allows for the atoms to flow past each other, because the electrons interfere with the alignment and interlocking of the thermo-fields of the atoms or compounds.

Unlike a gas, liquids form static bonds, where the electrons favor orbits that maintain magnetic links with the electrons of other atoms or compound that have the same electron energy (speed), causing effects like surface tension.

For solids, the position of the electron is on the inner surface of the thermo-field. This allows for maximum interlocking of the thermo-field bands, where the thermo-field of one atom intrudes into another atom’s thermo-field, locking the atom together to maintain a solid material. The electrons’ orbits are no longer in any position to move the atoms apart.

Thermo-fields don’t repel or attract other thermo-fields. The thermo-fields of different atoms overlap and interlock to limit their physical movement past each other. While the electrons do interact with other electrons, their interaction only controls the attraction and repulsion of the atoms. Thermo-fields respond to the addition or subtraction of heat energy by changing size or temperature; the more energy, the larger the field, but with the removal of energy, the field shrinks. Thermo-fields resist compression, but as they are compressed, their temperature rises and the atom tries to give up the excess energy thought heat radiation. Each proton generates one thermo-field; the shape, size and location of the field will be determined by the placement of the proton within the nucleus of the atom, and each proton’s thermo-field is associated with one electron. The addition of an extra electron to the any thermo-field will disrupt that thermo-field’s vibration and the magnetic structure of the atom. This disrupts the secondary magnetic field of the atom, adding magnetic energy to the primary magnetic band and bending the magnetic bands to propel the extra electron away. This is accompanied either by the growth of a disassociated primary band or by the increase of the length of an associated band that moves atoms apart. Each thermo-field has a steady-state electron voltage or speed, and no matter how much energy you add or remove, the atom will try to return its electrons to that level of energy.

Electrons fly around and are capable of changing direction with no loss of energy whenever they encounter a magnetic field. In the event that electrons encounter a thermo-field, there is a transfer of energy between the electrons and thermo-field that binds them together.

What Are Thermal-Magnetic Effects?

These effects are all associated with directional energy flow; and
can only be maintained in closed-loop systems.

Peltier effect - cooling across a junction, due to an applied electric current

outain effect - the heating created by electric current crossing a substance (resistance)

Seebeck effect - opposing current flows that are generated by directional heat flow across two different substances in a closed-loop system (thermocouples)

Thomas effect - electrical flows due to a temperature flow across a metal (this is the beginning of the Seebeck effect)

All these effects are in response to the directional flow of energy, whether the type is electrical or thermal. In the Peltier effect, the electrical energy flow causes the thermo-field to be decompressed by the electrical current. This means that the electrons remove more energy leaving the thermo-field that they add on impact with the thermo-field. The atoms that the current is flowing across respond like a gas so that, upon compressing the thermo-field, there is a corresponding rise in temperature proportional to the amount of compression, and if you decompress the field, there is a corresponding drop in temperature. For this effect to have any significance, there must be a directional flow of energy, and for the effect to be maintained, there must be a closed loop; otherwise, ionization or thermal equilibrium would overcome the effect and stop the process. Furthermore, the directional energy flow sets up a rhythm within the nuclear structure of the atoms and the thermo-field. This rhythm transfers energy from the current flow to or from the atoms’ electrons. The electrons respond to the atoms’ magnetic fields and add or remove energy from the thermo-field 

As an example of the Peltier effect, consider a current moving across a substance. The electrons interact with the thermo-fields of the atoms, disrupting the thermo-fields on impact, and upon breaking away, slowing the remaining electrons within each atom’s thermo-field. Because the current flow is directional, the atoms convert some of the disruption into magnetic energy within the nucleus; this is done by the nucleus as it converts the shock wave of the thermo-field moving the particles of the nucleus apart, disrupting the atom’s internal magnetic field. This disruption, if continued in a directional manner, will start a harmonic effect that amplifies the disruption until there is enough energy to transfer energy to the electron within the thermo-field.  By adding or removing energy from the electrons, you get a conversion of magnetic energy to thermal energy. The atom’s stronger magnetic energy is converted into accelerating the electrons, and this acceleration adds heat to the next atom in the direction of current flow. The vibration of the atoms causes a rhythmic motion of the atoms in one direction, and this energy is added to the magnetic field. (This rhythm is also responsible for the Seebeck effect of heat flow.) As the magnetic field strength is increased, the electrons’ speed is increased, and when there is enough stored energy, it transfers to a single electron. This electron escapes the atom’s thermo-field and induces current flow, which is limited to a closed loop. Otherwise, there will be an imbalance in the opposing forces that created the energy flow, and the effect will stop. As ionization builds up, there will be magnetic repulsion and attraction at opposite ends of the substance, and the current will slow or stop. Peltier’s and Seebeck’s theories of energy flow state that you need two dissimilar metals for the effect to take place, but the reason is not stated. The reason two dissimilar metals are needed is to provide a closed circuit. Otherwise, there’s a build up of ionization or thermal equilibrium that can no longer maintain a current. Without a difference in thermo-magnetic response to temperature or electrical current, there cannot be a closed circuit, but just a short circuit within the same energy flow.

Thermo-field attributes that need to be correlated with known phenomena for each element to confirm this theory are:

1.       Compression response

2.       Energy versus size and shape (enthalpy)

3.       Number of lines generated by the protons, or whether it is something else that makes up the thermo-field

4.       Frequency of the thermo-field vs. frequency of photonic energy (spectrum absorption line)

5.       Characteristics of the thermo-field while in balance with a single electron, with no electron, and where there is an extra electron

The interlocking ability of the thermo-field is what accounts for the hardness of a substance, whether atoms, compounds, crystals or alloys. The elements and compounds that have the least thermo-field interlocking are the softest, and those that have the most densely interlocked thermo-fields are the hardest. Take the example of gold, where only one proton creates the outermost thermo-field. The lines are spaced far apart, but the thermo-fields just below this outer field are densely packed and resist interlocking. Each atom has flexibility to change position or slide by with little resistance to movement, because the thermo-fields interlock loosely. Conversely, in the case of diamonds, the interlocking fields have been compressed and aligned by the magnetic fields of the carbon atoms so as to create a very tight bond between the atoms, both magnetically and through the thermo-field interlacing.

Gold’s ability to carry an electrical current is due to two factors.  First, gold favors one primary magnetic field that extends well beyond its thermo-field because the symmetry of its nucleus balances the magnetic attraction to other atoms. Even thought there are three possible magnetic links, gold favors adding all the excess magnetic strength to one primary band. This make chemical bonding difficult, as the magnetic energy must be absorbed by the atom’s secondary magnetic field to form a stable chemical bold. The second factor is that the outer thermo-field holds its single electron very weakly, and this weakness allows for much freer electron movement.

The reason gold is attracted to other gold atoms is because of the way the thermo-field and the electrons behave. Each electron has a speed determined by the thermo-field generated by its proton in the nucleus. The high-speed electron on the outer shell of the gold atom is held weakly due to the type and shape of the thermo-field, and this electron’s orbit covers the entire outer perimeter of the atom. It attracts other gold atoms, which can share their electrons without disrupting the magnetic field because they’re moving at the same speed.

The electrons will repel other elements by increasing or decreasing their electron speed, which disrupts their magnetic field.

 

Energy States of Sub-Atomic Particles

Thermal (heat) = the energy held by an atom’s protons to form a field around the atomic nucleus that stabilizes the electrons’ orbits.

Electron spin = the amount of energy an electron needs to control and maintain a balanced magnetic field; the higher the spin, the more balanced the magnetic field.

Electron speed = this is voltage (kinetic energy, movement in a direction); this also applies to the orbital speed of an electron associated with a thermo-field.

Proton magnetic energy = all protons have an equal amount of magnetic energy, divided between a single primary band and multiple secondary bands.

Neutrons are unstable matter and will decay if not stabilized by association with a proton(s); this is because the neutron by itself can only accommodate a narrow range of energy levels, either thermal or magnetic.

Centrifugal force should be called centrifugal effect, as it is relative to an object’s change of equilibrium due to the compression of the surrounding thermo-field that holds it in place. Galileo was correct in that real motion is only a point of view. Can you really tell what is moving and what is stationary? Because in truth, all matter is always in motion.

Temperature is a relative point of measurement in which the energy of the thermo-field, the physical confinement of the thermo-field and the position of the orbiting electron are in balance.  The thermo-field absorbs or releases energy to its neighbor thought direct contact or over a distance through the absorption or radiance of photonic energy.

Static discharge is excess magnetic energy that has reached enough strength to cause electrons to seek a balance as in a spark or lightning.

Combustion is a slow chemical reaction as atoms or compounds change chemical arrangement to form new compounds. The thermo-fields expand, weakening the magnetic bonds that hold the atoms into compounds. The expansion of the thermo-field increases the chance of magnetic disruption, or breaking the magnetic bands holding the atoms together, by many orders of magnitude. The magnetic fields will then recombine to form new compounds. The chance of magnetic disruption is also increased with the addition of magnetic energy from free roaming electrons, like a spark.

Explosion is a rapid disruption of the magnetic energy within atoms or compounds that happens faster than chemical recombination can occur. For example, if hydrogen and oxygen are in a container together; there is no chemical reaction until you add energy in one of three forms. 1) A shock wave forces the atoms together, disrupting the thermo-field, which adds energy to the nucleus. This converts the compression of the thermo-field into magnetic energy, disrupting the magnetic bonds of the atoms, leading to a reorganization of the magnetic bonds to form new compounds. 2) Adding a spark (free roaming electrons) adds magnetic energy to the atoms and again disrupts the magnetic bonds. 3) Adding heat causes the atoms in the compounds of H2 and O2 to move so far apart that the magnetic bands are distorted until they break, or are broken by other magnetic bands to form new bonds. This temperature is called the flash point.

Spectral absorption by atoms is a function of the interaction of the photon’s frequency and the frequency or vibration of the thermo-field of the atom or compound. The magnetic links between the atoms in a compound change the vibration frequency of the thermo-field of all the atoms in the compound.

What is the thermo-field response to compression, as in a shock wave (hit by other atoms)? There is a time delay between when the impact happens and when the thermo-field’s equilibrium is re-established. As a shock wave compresses one side of an atom’s thermo-field, this energy is transferred to the nucleus and then back out to the rest of the thermo-field as an increase in temperature. However, there is a small disruption within the nucleus as the energy is redistributed from within the nucleus (energy transfer from proton to proton, and movement of protons), converting the disruption within the nucleus to a small amount of magnetic energy. The thermo-field lines that interlock the atom also spread, which can be stored as bouncing energy or recoil.

Bouncing a steel ball on a hard surface, you will observe the thermo-field’s reaction to directional compression. On impact, there are four variables: slippage, recoil, energy conversion, and the strain of magnetic links within a substance. Slippage is the space between the different thermo-field lines of the atoms within the ball that allows for realignment. Recoil is the impact energy is stored within the distortion of the thermo-field lines. For example, two wire frames interlock so there is no strain on the wires, but by applying pressure to the wires, the distorted stores energy until the wires start to disengage; as the pressure is removed, a spring effect is created as the wire return to there original location. Energy conversion is the amount of impact energy that is converted to heat, the compression of the thermo-field increasing the temperature of the material. The magnetic links of a substance are strained as atoms are forced out of position.  Consider the magnetic links of the carbon atoms of a buckyball. You can pull on the atoms, but the magnetic links will pull the atoms back into place. Even thought the arrangement is magnetic, the atoms are held apart by their thermo-fields, so that the magnetic links do play an importance part in the structure.

A crack is where there is a misalignment of the thermo-fields, creating an imbalance in pressure between neighboring atoms. 

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 31 March 2009 19:09
 

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