Magnetism – Closed Loops of Energy PDF Print E-mail

 

Section on Magnetism

This theory proposes that on the atomic level, magnetism is a closed-loop energy system. Magnetic energy represents one of the building blocks of protons, electrons and neutrons within the atom. The current conception of protons and electrons is that they are oppositely charged particles. What if protons and electrons are magnets, each having a north and south pole? Then their magnetic interaction must be redefined to clarify the way the matter behaves.

If we believe protons are magnets, then protons will attract each other; this would change our understanding of what holds the atomic nucleus together. But then what stops protons from combining in the nucleus? It is the neutrons that are responsible for holding the protons apart and for holding the magnetic energy in balance within the atom (See Appendix Nuclear Structure of Common Isotopes). Then what stops protons in different atoms from combining? All protons have a second energy field that holds atoms apart (see Chapter 3, Thermo-field).

The different magnetic interactions of protons are a good place to start. For example, take the one proton that is the hydrogen atom.  If the hydrogen atom were a magnet, having both a north and a south pole, then hydrogen would attract other hydrogen atoms, which hydrogen does do to form H2, but it attracts only one other hydrogen atom. WHY? Well, unlike a magnet that has many magnetic bands, the hydrogen atom only has one proton to generate one band, and therefore can attract only one other hydrogen atom.

Would you observe hydrogen atoms stack up into columns? No, you would not see hydrogen stack, because to form a column, the magnetic energy would need something to maintain a balance between the atoms within the column or the column would fall apart. What you do see is hydrogen forming pairs of atoms that link together. There are three other reasons for this. The first, and to repeat, unlike large magnets that people use everyday, which are made up of trillions of atoms and has many magnetic lines, the proton only has one magnetic band, and is therefore capable of magnetically linking only to one other magnetic band within a neighboring atom’s nucleus. The second reason is that the proton has another energy field that surrounds the nucleus, which is the thermo-field (see Chapter 3), which is also created by protons and which holds all other atoms at a distance. The third reason is that the magnetic energy of the atoms is divided between the protons that form the links to create compounds. This balance of energy between the poles of the atoms is easiest to achieve if there is an equal distance between the north and south poles of each atom, because any outside magnetic energy will influence the strength of the magnetic bands controlling the spacing of the atoms. The orbiting electron magnetic energy will impose a balance between the atom’s magnetic bands.

 

 Unlike water, which takes the path of least resistance, magnetism takes the path of most help, even if it’s the long way around, and then tries to optimize its path. That’s why there is no increase in magnetic repulsive force as you force two like magnetic poles together – the number of magnetic bands has not changed. However, the magnetic bands’ paths have been forced out the sides of the two magnets. There is now more magnetic energy going out the sides of the both magnets than there is going out the tops of the magnets, which is blocked by opposing magnetic pole energy. The energy of repulsion is still there and will re-establish a balanced magnetic field as soon as it is able.

The sub-atomic particles (protons, electrons and neutrons) that possess magnetic fields will all have a unique and defined strength. The  property of magnetism is that magnetic energy (strength) is easily shared from one particle to the next. All protons have the same base energy.  By adding protons together, as in the atom’s nucleus, we get different properties relating to the levels of magnetic energy available to the different sub-atomic particles. The combination of the different sub-atomic particles and their magnetic energy would be larger than that of a single particle. Consider the case of different isotopes of hydrogen (protium and deuterium), when deuterium (hydrogen that has a neutron in the nucleus) is combined with oxygen to form water. The added magnetic energy of the neutron in deuterium will change the way heavy water responds to heat, making it less likely to change from a liquid to a gas. This makes all isotopes behave slightly different chemically as there is a small difference in the available magnetic energy. The way the nucleus is arranged with different numbers of neutrons also changes the way the proton’s magnetic band radiates from the nucleus, which favors different chemical combinations. (See App., Isotopes’ Nuclear Arrangements). To test this, we can exploit the slight differences in available magnetic energy to chemical purification and isotopes.

All protons have magnetic energy; this unit of energy is defined into two parts, the single primary magnetic band and the secondary magnetic field (coil), where the secondary magnetic field regulates the size of the primary magnetic band.

What is the Primary Magnetic Band?

The proton’s primary magnetic bands have a fixed strength. But the primary magnetic band length appears to be highly variable. The primary magnetic band’s ability to interlock with other primary bands and share their magnetic energy is recognized. The way that the proton controls the magnetic energy is what explains the variability in size. The proton divides the magnetic energy into two parts; the band of energy that interacts with other magnetic bands and the rest of the energy which is stored within the proton, which I envision as a coil. This coil expands and contracts to balance the magnetic energy of the proton. While the second magnetic field will only interact with other matter on the atomic level, it’s the secondary magnetic field that balances the magnetic strength and size for each atom. Magnetic bands will attempt to join together and align their poles to reach equilibrium with their neighbors. The electrons help balance the internal magnetic field of the atom with their magnetic energy (speed). This balance in magnetic energy also must be met before equilibrium is reached between atoms to form stable compounds. Due to the many sources of magnetic energy, the primary magnetic band is highly variable in length and globe location; its reaches out from the nucleus to many times the diameter of the thermo-field. The random disruption of the magnetic band by passing electrons, neutrons, atoms or even a planet’s magnetic field accounts for the variability.

What is the Proton’s Magnetic Size?

The primary magnetic bands are what link atoms together to form compounds. The primary magnetic bands of one atom or atoms will need to balance their strength with those of another atom or atoms to form stable compounds. What is required to achieve equilibrium within the magnetic energy of a compound? The balance is achieved by the spring effect of the secondary magnetic field that controls the length of the primary magnetic band; there is only one primary magnetic band for each proton. The atomic nucleus has a different number of protons for different elements, so there is the possibility that a primary magnetic band for each proton can form a link to another atom. However, within the structure of the nucleus there is only a limited amount of magnetic energy, and only a few protons will be able to form links with other atoms. In most elements, the individual proton’s primary magnetic bands are linked to another proton within its own nucleus. Most of the magnetic energy of an atom is stored in the secondary magnetic field. The secondary magnetic field is more like a coil, with the magnetic energy stored in loops of the same size, so to get the unit strength of a proton, you need to add up the primary band length, plus the product of the size of the secondary magnetic field by the number of coils that make up the secondary magnetic field; this will equal the base unit strength for every proton. The larger the atomic number, the more protons there are within the atomic nucleus, and the more magnetic energy that is combined. The increased number of protons in the atom’s nucleus results in a larger number of magnetic bands, which can be generated by that atom depending on the arrangement of the protons. For example, the hydrogen atom has only one proton, and therefore is the basis for magnetic field unit strength. Because hydrogen has only one possible primary field band, its secondary magnetic field coil strength can be found by experiment. Altogether they give a total field value or strength for a single proton.

The magnetic unit value of a proton will be the addition of the primary and secondary magnetic field. Thus, given the primary field p1 = x units in size plus the number of loops in the secondary field  (say 10 loops, s1 through s10) with a length of y units per loop, the total length would be x+(s1…s10 . y) = z units equaling one proton unit strength.  The total strength for (z) will be the unit’s value for the magnetic fields of the proton, and this value will be a constant for magnetic calculations. As an example of different strengths for the primary band size and secondary coil, if the value of x and y are x = 31 and y = 5, then z would equal 81. It could as easily have been {21+(s1…s10.6)} where the primary magnetic band has a length of 21 units and the secondary being 6 for a total of 81 units, or the primary magnetic band is 61, {61+(s1…s10.2)} yielding again a total of 81 units. Its possible to see why the primary magnetic line of one hydrogen atom is capable of expanding its magnetic band size to reach and interact with another hydrogen atom, if the magnetic line length would need to be 61 units in length to combine with another atom. But only 51 units is required to hold the two atoms together, so the extra magnetic length would be returned to the secondary magnetic field, and the atoms would pull together to balance the combined primary magnetic band length, thereby increasing the size (energy) of the secondary magnetic field and forming the compound H2. The primary field lines of each hydrogen atom would stabilize at a given length, and all the extra energy would be returned to the secondary magnetic line. The electron functions as a stabilizer for the magnetic energy of the atoms.

We continue exploring the stable compound H2, with the atom’s combined structure of two protons and two electrons. It’s a magnetically stable chemical, but with the addition of a third electron to this compound, the energy of the primary band holding the compound stable is disrupted and the balance of length (energy) between the two atoms is no longer equal. This makes the chance of an outside magnetic field disrupting or breaking the chemical bonds much more likely. The result of this instability within the magnetic energy of the compound generates a more variable length of the magnetic bands that are holding the atoms together, leading to a more variable spacing between the atoms. This greater distance also increases the chance of disruption. Electrons stabilize the secondary magnetic lines by acting as a limit on the variability of their size, and by compressing the secondary magnetic line as it orbits the nucleus. With extra electrons, the compression is increased, and this adds to the length of the primary magnetic band. The atoms will move apart if there is space; if not, the excessive energy distorts the primary magnetic band in a way that favors the expulsion of an electron from the thermo-field.

Magnetic bands of compounds will break in response to random or intentional magnetic interference, (See chapter 7 burning, catalysis, electrolysis, explosion, oxidation, shock waves and static discharge).

Magnetic attraction is the combining of the primary magnetic bands of atoms to form stable magnetic energy. As these magnetic bands link, the magnetic energy seeks balance and will pull the atoms together if possible. The magnetic energy is balanced between the primary magnetic band and the secondary magnetic fields, with the electrons as modulators. When the atoms cannot be pulled together to form compounds, the primary magnetic bands may join together to form a magnetic field. The atoms link the bands of magnetic energy together to reach a stable balance of size and strength.

Repulsion & Attraction of Electrons

Magnetic repulsion / attraction of an electron is when the magnetic bands created by protons are bent in a way that will deflect an electron toward or away from the atom’s nucleus. In the case of a negative magnetic field, electrons are deflected away so as not to bind to the thermo-field, as the magnetic band is angled away from the center of the atom. In the case of a positively charged field, the electrons are channeled into the thermo-field. The primary magnetic band of a proton is a band in that it has sides; it’s the magnetic band’s orientation of these sides that influences electrons’ paths. Hydrogen’s single band is a good case, because hydrogen gas is bound to only one other atom, either as H2 with a loose magnetic bond, or to one of the four protons available in the carbon atom with a tight magnetic bond. The bands can be manipulated by the present or absence of a balancing electron. As seen when you strip the electrons for H2 gas, the hydrogen atoms stay bonded to the other hydrogen atom. What I’m proposing is that it’s the magnetic bands radiating from the protons that holds the two hydrogen atoms together like magnets. Even in this case, when you strip every electron away, there is no chemical breakdown. The absence of the electron causes the bands to be bent so as to attract passing electrons, but not to break the chemical bonds. The magnetic bond between the atoms is very unstable, as the electrons are no longer there to stabilize the magnetic energy within the secondary magnetic field. The binding strength of the primary magnetic band is not gone, but is highly unstable without the balancing of the electrons. But you do see the bands breaking at very high temperature, when the thermo-field size has increased to overcome the strength of the magnetic bands.

  

What is Electro-Magnetism?

The electrons’ flow and their interaction with the magnetic bands radiating from the protons are related by their magnetic energy and the length of time the electron interacts with the proton magnetic band. This can be understood by thinking of them as a bat and ball. An electron is to a ball as a proton’s magnetic field is to a bat. The swinging of the bat is analogous to the movement of the magnetic field, and the energy of a bat hitting a ball will change the direction and speed of a ball. Thus, if an electron hits a moving magnetic field, the field deflects it; like a bat hitting a ball, both will show a change in direction and speed, and the energy of the bat is transferred to the ball. The moving magnetic field adds energy to the electron; the ball and electron both have their speed and direction changed. The relationship of the different directional forces applied is what controls the new speed and direction.

Magnetic bands have a width along with an angular orientation which influences the directional flow of electrons. Excess electrons influence the band’s angular orientation so as to deflect electrons away from the nucleus. If electron(s) are striped away from the thermo-field of an atom, then the magnetic band will adjust its angle, so that any electron passing too close to the nucleus is captured by the thermo-field.

Diamagnetic substances are composed of atoms or compound structures that resist the addition of magnetic energy or the crossing of their magnetic field. To create a magnetic field that is resistant to the addition of magnetic energy or resists the crossing of magnetic fields, you must interlock the atoms in a contrary direction on a single plane at the atomic level, so that the number of protons orientated with their north poles up is in balanced with an equal number of protons with their south poles up. Then you will see a substance that levitates over a fixed magnetic field. Such is the case with graphite, where the carbon atoms are locked together, north to south in a flat ring pattern of equally strong primary bands. The electrons of the carbon atom are stable in the way the electrons are both attracted and repelled equally by the outside magnetic field as long as graphite’s flat structure is perpendicular to the magnetic field. 

Static cling is a temporary magnetic field imbalance that attempts to attract electron from other atoms, to regain the balance between electrons and protons. This imbalance can be maintained by an insulating layer between the attracting magnetic field and the electrons of the atom that are subjected to the magnetic field. The classic example is that of a balloon rubbed in your hair and then stuck to the wall. The air inside the balloon has been stripped of electrons, creating a negatively charged magnetic field that is strong enough to cross the insulating property of the rubber of the balloon and attract the electrons from within the wall. But the balloon’s rubber prevents the electrons from being stripped from the wall to balance the magnetic field of the air inside the balloon.

The protons’ primary magnetic bands are not related to their electrons’ orbits. But they are related to the energy of the electrons (voltage or speed) as they orbit on the thermo-field; the higher the speed of the electrons, the more compressed the protons’ secondary magnetic field lines become. The electron’s magnetic energy is transmitted through the thermo-field into the proton. This causes the primary magnetic band of the proton(s) of the atom to expand until a balance is reached that equals the magnetic energy, and the size or length of the band(s) matches the energy level. The speed of the electron in the thermo-field of atoms or compounds is its chemical energy; the change of electron’s speed is equal to the change in chemical energy of the atom or compound. By looking at two hydrogen atoms (H2), you can see that this magnetic link between two atoms will only break at very high temperatures. This is due to the expansion of the thermo-field causing the magnetic band to try and match the increased spacing, until the maximum strength of the magnetic link is reached and the magnetic bands break. You will also observe that there is no change in chemical energy with any change in temperature, so the chemical energy cannot be stored in the magnetic field or the thermo-field of the atoms. This leaves the electron’s speed and its internal spin as the most likely source of chemical energy.

The ability of an atom or compound to establish a magnetic bond is determined by the availability of the atom’s magnetic energy. The availability of primary magnetic bands is unique to each element; all protons have a primary magnetic band, but these bands are most likely linked to other protons within their own nucleus. The number of protons that have primary bands that are not linked internally to other protons has to do with the position of a proton within the nucleus. Protons will maintain an unlinked band until there is a change in available energy.

 Unique to each element is the speed or energy of the electrons and the number and strength of its free primary magnetic bands, as well as the ability of the atom’s secondary magnetic field to recoil, which pulls and holds atoms together creating compounds.

Metals have a magnetic band or bands that reach beyond their thermo-field, but their chemical reaction is determined by the secondary magnetic field’s stability and ability to absorb the excess primary magnetic band length that is needed to hold the atoms bonded together. As an example of an extreme amount of available magnetic energy consider NH4BH4, where the balance of accessible magnetic energy is enough to create magnetic links with all but two protons within the nitrogen nucleus.

   

Magnets exist in three types, atomic as in iron and samarium, compound as in Sm1Co5 and Sm2Co17, (samarium and cobalt atoms), and metal alloys as in aluminum-cobalt-nickel. But why do they have magnetic properties? The reason that iron and samarium are magnetic can be seen in their atomic structure. The iron atom is a long symmetrical structure, balanced by equal numbers of protons with a north orientation and those with a south orientation.

By looking at the nuclear structure of the iron atom, you will observe that the best place for the excess magnetic energy to go is to the 3d6 ring of protons. The magnetic energy will favor radiating from two opposing protons with their primary magnetic bands, one on each side with the proton poles reversed to each other. (One north pole up, the other south pole up) Note that isotopes 54 and 56 will be more magnetic than isotopes 57 and 58.

  When a magnetic field is repeatedly applied to the iron atoms, the electrons will all begin to orbit within the thermo-field in the same direction, and this will favor strengthening one of the primary magnetic bands well beyond the individual atom’s thermo-field. This band will link to the bands of other iron atoms, extending the magnetic band many times the size of the atom’s normal magnetic field. This effect will also reduce the opposing band by a corresponding amount, and since this magnetic imbalance between the opposing magnetic bands of iron is the result of the stable electron orbits, the newly created magnetic field will not collapse even after removing the original magnetic field. The stabilized electrons’ orbits will continue to maintain the magnetic field until an outside influence disrupts their orbits and destabilizes the magnetic bands.

The Curie point is the temperature at which the heat of the thermo-field disrupts the orbits of the electrons by moving them away from the nucleus. The electrons then stop favoring the magnetic orientation that strengthens one of the protons, and the magnetic energy will rebalance between all the protons, breaking the stacking effect between the atoms and causing the magnetic field to collapse. (Note: if the orbit of the electrons was not changed, but only moved, then the magnetic field will re-establish after the magnet cools below the Curie point.)

In the case of the compound Sm1Co5, the answer is not as simple as for iron. Looking at the atomic structure of the compound that forms this unique magnetic material, the balance between electron energy and the availability and location of the primary magnetic band is the cause of the magnetic properties. The available magnetic energy of cobalt is enough for three magnetic bonds These bonds are all able to form on one side of the nucleus, which favors a loop of atoms that all face to the center of the loop. Their bands lock together, leaving only one free band facing the center of the compound. This forces any additional magnetic energy that is added to the structure to go to this one free magnetic band, which creates a stable magnetic field. Samarium’s two magnetic bands bring balance to the structure. And the samarium electrons’ speed and orbit stabilize the other electrons within the compound. This compounds leaves one magnetic band free to extend beyond the local area and align with other similar magnetic structures. Most compounds respond to extra magnetic energy by adding length to all the magnetic bands and moving the atoms apart. Therefore, to have a magnetic compound, the structure must add any excess magnetic energy to a single magnetic band that will not respond to chemical bonding. Isolating the magnetic band can only be achieved within the structure of the compound, so no other atom is able to attain a chemical bond. The atomic structure of the compound also must be locked together so as not to move the atoms apart with the addition of any heat or magnetic energy; the magnetic energy is instead added only to the one free magnetic band that enlarges. This enlarged band joins with other bands to form the magnetic field.

  The third type of magnet is an alloy. This is when the magnetic property of different metals is stabilized, with the excess magnetic energy linked to the other atoms within the alloy, but the magnetic links don’t form compounds. Joining the magnetic bands of the atoms together creates a magnetic field that extends beyond the physical size of the material (this being true of all metals, the magnetic band extends beyond their own thermo-field). The speed of the electrons in each atom that make up the alloy must maintain a balance between the magnetic energy of the secondary magnetic field of the other atoms within the alloy, so that the secondary magnetic field cannot absorb the excess magnetic energy that would collapse the magnetic field. But unlike the case for iron, the electrons in alloys do not all orbit in the same direction, but rather, the electrons of one atom influence the magnetic bands of another atom, making it harder (if not impossible) to reverse the magnetic field in the alloy. The excess speed of the electrons in one metal is lost to the electrons of the other metal in the alloy, which causes an extension of the magnetic band of one metal until it links with the other atom, and the overall magnetic field that is created extends well beyond the boundaries of the alloy.

 

The two types of energy of the proton are structured into the magnetic and thermo-field, and are unique to the position for each proton within the atom or compound. The two types of energy are each independent of the energy level of the other, as they are different types of energy and need an outside influence to convert form magnetic energy to thermal energy, and vice versa.

Attraction and repulsion of magnetic fields is in response to magnetic energy being forced out of equilibrium. As two magnetic fields come together, the magnetic energy tries to find balance by combining or by distorting the shape of the opposing magnetic field.

 Don’t confuse this with chemical magnetic bonds (closed loop magnetic links), where the atoms join together with their neighbors and the electron speed of the new compound is balanced by the magnetic link between the atoms. When atoms are locked in position, as in a solid, and no chemical bonding (joining of the thermo-field and the electrons) is possible, the atoms will group together to create a magnetic field.

In the case of ionization, the magnetic bands radiating from the protons within the atom are distorted and become non-orthogonal to the nucleus. The electrons’ ability to distort the magnetic bands towards or away from the thermo-field accounts for static electricity. Too few electrons orbiting on the thermo-field for the number of protons in the nucleus, and the magnetic band distortion will be angled toward the thermo-field, which increases the chance that the thermo-field will capture an electron. Too many electrons and the distortion is away from the thermo-field; if the magnetic energy is great enough, an electron will be stripped from the thermo-field and expelled. The magnetic band will also try to repel any new electrons before they can interact with the thermo-field.

Magnetic lines should be called bands as they have an orientation and sides that include a width (the orientation is consistent with the direction of magnetic energy flows, and the sides are perpendicular to the flow of electrons). A magnetic field generated by electron flow will have a greater effect on electrons than will a proton’s magnetic field, created by the compression of the secondary magnetic band in the nucleus.

The magnetic bands of an atom have the attributes length (fixed as to a single proton or electron, but unlimited in groups of atoms or compounds), width (with a front and a back), frequency (the vibration that helps pull sub-atomic particles together), direction (energy flow between the north and south poles), and movement (how long a magnetic band will stay in contact, as when a magnetic field drags a electron around within a wire coil).

A secondary magnetic band of protons becomes linked only under extreme conditions, as they must all have the same energy level, and normally these lines are only linked with the help of neutrons.

The addition of electrons to an atom adds energy and distorts the magnetic bands of the protons. This extra energy adds to the length of the primary magnetic band, which, if possible, will move the atoms of a compound apart.

The electron speed or voltage for an atom or compound determines the amount of energy released or required to change from one compound to another. This is not related to temperature but does affect temperature in that there is a release or absorption of energy as the speed of the electron changes (this relates to explosions and burning). All atoms will try to maintain equilibrium with all the energy types and fields.

The cross-sectional shape of the magnetic field that forms around a current flow of electrons in a wire is not really round, but rather consists of overlapping ellipse. It appears round due to the weaving of individual magnetic bands created by the atoms in the wire as the electrical current flows through it. Moreover, the magnetic field is directional due to a small ionization of the atoms.

Electrical resistance is the magnetic and thermo-field interference of atoms as the electrons flow thought a material. Thermo-field resistance happens when the electrical current interacts with the multiple energy levels of the electrons that reside within the different thermo-fields of the atoms. The current then transfers its speed (energy) to the electrons in the atom, slowing the current flow. The electron flow is converted to heat by the electrons of the atom trying to give up their excess energy (speed) to the thermo-field. Magnetic resistance occurs when the electron flow does not match the directional orientation of the magnetic field of the atoms, which delays electron flow, ionizing the material.


Can the Magnetic Strength of a Proton Be Determined?

Hydrogen has only one primary magnetic band. Therefore, an experiment can be conducted to calculate the unit length of the magnetic band generated by a proton. We know that hydrogen gas normally exists as pairs of hydrogen atoms (H2), because the single magnetic bands generated by each proton of hydrogen form a magnetic field when linked with each other. If we measure the size of the H2 compound and add heat until the compound breaks, then we can calculate what the maximum length of the primary band is for a pair of protons. Next we need to measure the size of the secondary magnetic field by cooling H2 until the electrons reach the point where the thermo-field and the electrons’ orbits interfere with the secondary magnetic field. At this point, the thermo-field’s size stops constricting in a linear manner, and the size of the primary and the secondary field can be calculated by measuring the break point in the linear drop in size and the temperature at which the H2 molecule breaks. Measuring the size of the thermo-field allows the calculation of a very good estimate of the unit strength for one proton‘s magnetic energy. However, this experiment must be done so that there is no ionization, as this will disrupt the magnetic strength of the protons. 

 

Last Updated on Tuesday, 12 May 2009 18:39
 

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