Nuclear Models Elements 1-10 PDF Print E-mail


The nuclear structure of hydrogen is simple, even for its isotopes. These are Protium, Deuterium and Tritium. I.e., Proton - proton and neutron; or the unstable - proton and two neutrons



The two protons of the helium atom are locked together through their primary magnetic bands, like two magnets that link together, one with its north pole up, the other with its south pole up. This orientation is the main reason that helium is a noble gas, having no open magnetic band available to form links with other atoms to attach to. With its large and balanced thermo-field, the electron favors orbiting on the outside of the thermo-field, making it very difficult for the electron’s magnetic energy to be added to the nucleus.




Unlike the hydrogen atom the magnetic field of the helium atom is locked deep inside the thermo-field and is well balanced by the secondary magnetic field and the neutrons.


The two stable isotopes of lithium have very unbalanced thermo- and magnetic fields; as with all metals, the primary magnetic band extends beyond the thermo-field, but the very unbalanced shape of the thermo-field causes the electrons to prefer the inner side of the thermo-field. This increases the variability of the primary magnetic band size and its reactivity with other atoms. In the isotope 6Li you get a ring of 3 protons and three neutrons that balances the magnetic energy, but in isotope 7Li an alpha particle adds a third proton with the help of two neutrons.


The five neutrons in the atomic structure of beryllium are all on the same plane, where the protons are arranged with two above the plane and two below the plane. The two top and two bottom protons create a two-layered thermo-field for beryllium. The magnetic energy of beryllium favors two balanced primary magnetic bands with a low variability of magnetic reaction.


The structure of boron is a stacking of two and three proton rings. The ring of three protons makes it so that there are three possible magnetic links, one example being with three other atoms as in BCl3. Another is the possibility of a single link plus a pair of protons links, as in B2O3, where the arrangement has the first oxygen dually linked to one boron with a single link to the center oxygen.  The center oxygen has a single link to the next boron, which has a dual link to the last oxygen in the chain (O=B-O-B=O).


Carbon12 is the first example of a tall and skinny nucleus of three rings of alpha particles stacked together, which also explains why carbon is a solid. (The more distorted the thermo-field shape is from round, the more likely a substance is to be a solid. High temperatures are required to make the field round and symmetrical enough to change the state to a gas.) The structure of 13carbon is a stacking of 3 alpha particles, with the center alpha particle having three neutrons in the middle of the ring. This gives the carbon atom one of the most flexible magnetic linking arrangements possible. The thermo-field is tall and skinny for a solid, which help the atoms resist changes in state of matter with the addition of thermal energy. It also favors magnetic links of two and four, with a double pair link possible.


Nitrogen is a stacking of two three two proton rings, creating a round and balanced thermo-field, which favors a gas state. The magnetic links of nitrogen are one and three; some examples as one link include N2 (N-N), N2O (N-O-N) with the oxygen in the middle, and NO (N-O-) being very reactive with its extra magnetic energy. Examples of three links include dinitrogen trioxide (O=N-O-N=O) and ammonia (NH3), Both of these compounds have links are from the middle ring of protons. The other stable isotope of 15nitrogen has an extra neutron in the middle of the middle ring of protons and is held stable by the thermo-field of the top and bottom rings running thought the center of the atom.


Oxygen stacks the proton rings in a two, four and two structure. The isotope 17oxygen has a neutron in the middle of the four-proton ring, and, like nitrogen, is held stable by the thermo-fields of the top and bottom proton rings. 18Oxygen has two extra neutrons that are also added to the middle proton ring and balance the structure. Oxygen’s thermo-field being round and balanced again favors the gaseous state. The size of the thermo-field and the balancing of the magnetic energy of oxygen allow it to make large chemical links with other gases and itself (O2), as well as with solids (NO, NO2) if they have a lot of magnetic energy, as with carbon (CO and CO2), Oxygen is not a metal because, even with all the magnetic energy it has, the magnetic field of oxygen does not extend beyond the thermo-field. Moreover, as the thermo-field is round, there is very little internal variability of the magnetic field, but this availability of magnetic energy does make it reactive to any magnetic field that might cross the thermo-field.


Fluorine stacks the proton rings in a two, five and two structure. However, the middle five protons are in a two-by-two and a three-by-four arrangement of protons to neutrons. This makes for a round thermo-field shape but a very unbalanced magnetic strength. The shape of the thermo-field would keep the magnetic bands stable except that the magnetic energy of the one unmatched proton is very great and very reactive to any outside magnetic influence. The isotope 19fluorine is the only stable nucleus, as there is no place for extra neutrons in the structure that would not unbalance the atom. 

Neon 10

Neon stacks its proton rings in a two, six and two structure, giving it a round thermo-field for a gaseous state at all but the lowest temperatures. However, at very low temperatures, the constriction of the thermo-field forces the electrons to cross into the thermo-field and transform it into a liquid state. The shape of the nucleus makes the magnetic field balance with no unattached primary bands, making chemical reactions nearly impossible. With the isotopes 21Neon and 22Neon the extra neutrons are in the six-proton ring. Neon21 balances a neutron in the middle of the nucleus, but it’s very rare. In the case of  22Neon, the six proton ring is balancing the three-protons by four-neutrons arrangement. Of all the isotopes, 22Neon should be the easiest by far to form chemical links with.   

NeonIsotope 20Isotope 21Isotope 22Isotope 23Isotope 24Isotope 25Isotope 26
2p6 +1 type 6m+2 type 6b+3 type 6c+4 type 6d+5 type 6v+6 type 6e
 0.446 sec22.5 sec2.605 yr 14.97 hr59.3 sec1.07 sec



Last Updated on Tuesday, 31 March 2009 19:41

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